A key vector for climate signal propagation is the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), an ocean water mass that connects with the atmosphere at high northern latitudes before sinking and spreading southward. The rate and extent of NADW spreading and the modification of its properties en route are determined by a complex dynamical system at two topographic subpolar-subtropical choke points: Flemish Cap and the Grand Banks of  Newfoundland. Existing observations, however, only enables a partial description of typical circulation and mixing patterns and cannot support a comprehensive mechanistic understanding NADW dynamics across this  western subpolar-subtropical boundary. The goal of the CROSSROAD project is to use novel observational and numerical tools to provide this process-oriented assessment of NADW motions and transformation across these  choke points and to study their impacts on climate-relevant metrics. Find out more in Science & goals.